การสืบพันธุ์

posted on 18 Feb 2011 20:38 by biochic
การสืบพันธุ์

  

    เป็นคุณสมบัติที่สำคัญของสิ่งมีชีวิตทุกชนิดสำหรับสัตว์การสืบพันธุ์จะช่วยให้มีจำนวนสมาชิกเพิ่มขึ้นจากเดิม เพื่อรักษาเผ่าของตัวเองไว้ให้คงอยู่ต่อไป สัตว์บางชนิดออกเป็นไข่ และสัตว์บางชนิดออกลูกเป็นตัว
       สัตว์ชั้นต่ำที่ไม่มีกระดูกสันหลังมักออกลูกเป็นไข่ไม่ว่าจะเป็นพวกสัตว์ที่มีขาเป็นข้ออย่างแมลง แม้แต่สัตว์ลำตัวนิ่มอย่างหอยและปลาหมึกรวมทั้งสัตว์ที่มีผิวขุรขระอย่างปลาดาวทะเลจำนวนไข่ที่ออกในแต่ละครั้ง จะมีจำนวนมากเพื่อให้มีโอกาสเหลือรอดจากการถูกสัตว์อื่นกินหรือทำลายส่วนสัตว์ชั้นสูงที่มีกระดูกสันหลังเกือบทั้งหมดออกลูกเป็นไข่ เช่น พวกปลา สัตว์ครึ่งน้ำครึ่งบก สัตว์เลื้อยคลาน และสัตว์ปีก จำนวนไข่ที่ออกแต่ละครั้งจะมีจำนวนมากเช่นกันมีเพียงสัตว์ที่เลี้ยงลูกด้วยน้ำนมเท่านั้นที่ออกลูกเป็นตัว บางชนิดออกลูกครั้งละตัว เช่นวัว ควาย ช้าง ม้า บางชนิดออกลูกครั้งละหลายตัว เช่น สุนัข แมว สุกร
     นักวิทยาศาสตร์พบว่าการสืบพันธุ์สัตว์ที่เกิดขึ้นตามธรรมชาติมีหลายลักษณะ
สามารถแบ่งได้         เป็น 2 ประเภท ได้แก่ 

                   1. การสืบพันธุ์แบบอาศัยเพศ  
               2. การสืบพันธุ์แบบไม่อาศัยเพศ           
    *ในที่นี้จะกล่าวเฉพาะการสืบพันธุ์แบบอาศัยเพศ*


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